Essilor International S.A.

Founded more than 167 years ago, Essilor offers its exceptional services to clients in the medical industry. Essilor International S.A was founded in 1849, as a small network of eyeglass manufacturing workshop in Paris. The workshop the after developed through the acquisition of some developing factories within its vicinities, equally introducing frame glasses that are used to date. Essilor International S.A came to being because of a grand merger between two ophthalmic firms, Essel ad Silor.

The nylon system introduced a thin nylon thread that holds the lens, fixed to the frame. Essilor International S.A experienced a great breakthrough with the invention of Varilux in 1959, the first ophthalmic progressive lens. The company started as a retailer of these frames and lenses, before ac repair to become a manufacturer of the same.

The merger between Essel and Silor came to be after numerous years of conflicts between the two entities, making it the third largest optical firm in the world. Presently, the company has a total count of 61,000 active employees. Towards the end of 2015, the company was able to register a net revenue of 6.72 billion pounds, and a net profit of close to 757 million pounds. The first two years of this company were marked by two major events. The purchase of Benoist-Bethiot, a lens manufacturer based in France, which specializes in the manufacture of progressive lenses. The other major event is the creation of Valoptec, a company composed of stockholder managers that held close to half the company’s capital stocks.

Later in the mid-1970s, Essilor International S.A focused on becoming a genuine optical group that specialized in the manufacture of progressive plastic lenses. The company was the listed for stock exchange in 1975. Many of these events conducted by Essilor International S.A’s predecessors brought about the launch of Varilux Orma. Essilor’s management opted to adjust their operational strategies to favor its growth to international markets. The company achieved this by signing some acquisition contracts with various firms located in Ireland, the United States and the Philippines. This turned Essilor International S.A from a mere exporting company to international business.

The year 1980 started with stiff competition, and Essilor International S.A had to take drastic measures that would enable them to cut costs, while at the same time improving the quality of services delivered. The company purchased four new plants within a period of four years. These were in Puerto Rico, Mexico, Thailand, and Brazil. Meanwhile, the plants in France were facilitated with new advanced technology, which automated the entire manufacturing process. Essilor International S.A also saw it fit to withdraw its frame operations gradually, and focus more on the corrective lenses.

In the 1980s, Essilor International S.A collaborated with the American company, PPG, to offer photochromic transitions. With reference from the company’s 2015 registration document, more than 87% of revenue for the company came resulted from the sale of ophthalmic lenses. An extra 10% came in through reader and sunglasses, while the final 3% came from additional activities like the sale of various equipment.


Ensco is a Public Limited Company that offers well drilling and offshore drilling services. An American fund manager and investor founded the company in 1975. Ensco plc founder, Richard Rainwater made a great fortune from this investment that he was listed as one of the top 1000 richest individuals worldwide in 2010. This company focusing on the petroleum industry is headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It also has its operational headquarters in San Felipe, Houston, Texas. The current Chief Executive Officer, Carl Trowel managed to generate a net revenue of $4.063 billion as at 2015. To date, Ensco PLC has an active employee count of 6,400.

Initially, the company had the name Blocker Energy Corporation. The contractor is now the second largest drilling contractor, with an operational base in 11 semi-submersible drilling rigs, 40 offshore jack-ups, and nine drillships. The contractor avails quarterly updates on the progress of every rig within its fleet, with the year 2015 recording 14% of its income coming from Petrobras; 18% recorded from BP.

Blocker Energy Corporation was incorporated as a Public Limited Company in 1975 after graduating from Texas A&M in 1948. Initially, the company focused its operations on the Gulf of Mexico, and then set up a South Texas drilling in 1954 with his father. The company was dissolved when an oversupply of oil in the market paralyzed the oil-drilling contractor. Blocker resolved to work with Dresser Industries as the oil-equipment division operations manager, steadily advancing to the level of senior vice-president.

Blocker purchased Choya Energy and renamed it Blocker Energy, using his South American experience to place the company in the international market strategically. A market he believed was less competitive than the local markets that had more than 900 similar drilling contractors. The demand for Blocker Energy’s services drastically rose, driving the company into a debt of $44 million. This prompted the management to put the business public and source further funds.

Thinking that oil prices in the country were set to shoot up, Blocker energy resolved to borrow heavily so as to expand their oil rigs capacity to 54. The company was set for disappointment when the prices of oil plunged drastically. To counter this, the company resolved to restructure the organization and surrendering 64% of the contractor’s assets to its banks. This helped by raising a net amount of $240 million in debt forgiveness, but leaving behind six rigs. The number of employees dropped to 500, even though the number of rigs rose to 24 in 1984.

The contractor acquired Golden Gulf Offshore Inc., together with ten boats, which distributed four vessels to its rigs. It further purchased Penrod Holding Corporation after it filed for bankruptcy, adding nineteen more rigs to its fleet. ENSCO further acquired Pride International for $7.3 billion, gaining instant access to the West African and Brazilian markets. This diversifies the contractor’s asset base to semi-submersibles and drill ships from large jack-up rigs.

ENSCO encountered bribery claims when signing a contract with Pride International in 2015. This, therefore, prompted the need to terminate this contract for the rig.

Dal-Tile Corporation

The company’s products hit the market in the mid-1990s, receiving affiliate company-operated sales via a network of more than two hundred Centers to architects, contractors, builders, design professionals, developers as well as individual clients. This is also extended to different floor dealers and reputable home center retailers like Home Depot.

Dal-Tile Corporation currently has an active employee count of more than 7600, all of whom are dedicated to growing the business by offering the best value to every client.

The company started experiencing problems that led to a drastic reduction in its general performance. A sharp decrease in commercial construction reduced the net earnings of this company from an average of $470 million to less than $350 million. This was barely enough to cater for the interest AEA paid in 1991 amounting to $43 million. On top of that, the company has an imposed fine of $1 million for dumping hazardous and lead-contaminated wastes into various gravel pits in Dallas. The Texas Water Commission stated that the company had for more than twelve years dumped these wastes in various pits that were not licensed by the state. In 1993, the founder and president, Robert Brittingham was found guilty of more than seventeen criminal counts, including the conspiracy to dumping hazardous wastes. He was fined and sentenced to five years’ probation. The overall fines accumulated to $16.5 million, which included the costs of cleaning up these dumpsites.

The company resolved to establish an additional $18 million regional warehouse and an extra 30% more sales outlet. The company was soon operating seventy-six showroom stores that served as its primary outlets. This led to a drastic drop in the sales by up to 30% within this period. Dal-Tile Corporation was then offered a poor rating due to the high recurring debts and the cyclic environment of the construction industry. The company’s chairperson retired after working with the Dal-Tile for more than 34 years and was the replaced by Pilliod, who started by postponing every construction process that was in place. He attributed this to the great reduction in sales. The revenues rose to $506.3 million in 1994. Dal-Tile Corporation then improved the quality of their products, which increased sales drastically. By the end of 1994, the company as able to net a profit of $6.9 million after taxes.

Presently, Dal-Tile Corporation has outlets in Conroe, New York, Kentucky, El Paso, Alabama, Fayette, Pennsylvania, Jackson, Tennessee, North Carolina, Lewis port, Gettysburg, Olean, and Dallas.